The improper design and management of Dairy farms will slow down the growth of cows and reduce milk production and shorten their life span. One of the great impacts is the air quality in Dairy Farm. Cows at any childbearing period will be affected by the respiratory environment, and the large amount of ammonia produced by cow dung in Dairy farms is harmful to the entire respiratory system. Therefore, it is quite necessary to optimize the ventilation system to avoid these hazards in the Dairy Farm design and management.
6 Factors Leading to The Poor Air Quality in Dairy Farm
- Cows produce a great deal of dung and urine every day;
- High humidity: The water vapor 500-kilogram cow exhale every day can reach 9 kilograms;
- Intensive culture is characterized by the concentration of cowherds;
- Managers in some cold regions try to keep the cows warm by sealing up the Dairy Farm;
- Production management staff usually fails to open the roller blinds/top windows in time after extreme weather;
- The Dairy Farm is not standardized in design or construction.
4 Key Points of Dairy Farm Climate Control System Design
- Under severe cold climatic conditions, adult cows and calves need fresh air, but itis required to avoid the instantaneous temperature difference change caused by the direct attack of cold air at the same time;
- Proper ventilation should be ensured in Dairy Farm, and floor heating can be adopted to prevent the ground from icing up. Enclosed residential heating will cause long-term hidden dangers, so it is not recommended;
- Heat stress kills hundreds of thousands of cows every year, but the severe cold has little impact on cows;
- Under severe cold climatic conditions, it is necessary to give adequate drinking water throughout the day while increasing the feed supply to maintain the weight of cows.
Negative Effects Caused by Poor Climate Control
- Ammonia can cause lifelong damage to the respiratory tract of cows;
- Excessive humidity can result in many respiratory diseases;
- Overmuch moisture in Dairy Farm will coagulate when it cools, which will lead to icing on the roof, sidewalls, and cow trail.
Phenomena to Determine Poor Climate Control in Dairy Farm
- It smells of ammonia in the Dairy Farm;
- Water drips down from the roof;
- Moisture on the wall or window;
- The roof, walls, and ground are covered with ice;
- The dung on the cow trail heavily freezes.
16 Solutions for Dairy Farm Climate Control
- Use barn exhaust fans for fully forced ventilation;
- Natural ventilation;
- Install ventilation exhaust fans, circulation fans, water spray system, and misting system to cool cows;
- Indispensable management;
- The roof pitch for natural ventilation is not less than 1:3;
- For the Dairy Farm with a width of about 30 meters, the width of its ridge ventilation opening is not less than 500 millimeters;
- Keep a 300-millimeter-wide continuous ventilation opening under the eaves on both sides of the Dairy Farm;
- The width of overhanging eaves is 300 millimeters, which can be half-closed in extreme weather;
- The height of the flashing board ranges from750to 1000 millimeters based on the different local weather conditions;
- All Dairy Farms located in severe cold areas should install roller blinds on the sidewalls that are 300 millimeters high;
- The roller blinds are open all year round, and only put them down when the cold current hits;
- Ensure good sealing between the roller blind and door;
- Conduct dung-scraping in cold weather;
- Clean cow dung 3 times a day at milking intervals;
- In extremely cold weather, the number of dung-cleaning must be increased to 6 times a day;
- If the ground is covered with ice, press the forklift truck’s bucket down to remove the ice.
- The best time to deice is in the afternoon.
- The snow-melting agents should be used with caution to avoid damage to the concrete floor.
- In case of severe icing, use a forklift truck that is loaded with a heavy load.
- Biogas power generation can provide a sufficient heat source for floor heating.
- A negative well should be built under the drinking trough to prevent the ground from icing during cleaning.
- Correct ventilation management of the Dairy Farm is required.
Poor climate control in Dairy farms will unfavorably affect the health of cows, increase the chance of ground icing, and bring out many problems. A Dairy Farm with 500 cows adds 4,500 liters of moisture a day. Improper design and management will produce a great effect on milk yield, health, and longevity of the entire cow herd. Therefore, more attention should be paid to the climate control of Dairy Farm in its design, construction, and management.